Cleaning up messy World Bank data

Packages we will need:

library(tidyverse)
library(tidyr)
library(janitor)
library(magrittr)
library(democracyData)
library(countrycode)
library(ggimage)

When you come across data from the World Bank, often it is messy.

So this blog will go through how to make it more tidy and more manageable in R

For this blog, we will look at World Bank data on financial aid. Specifically, we will be using values for net ODA received as percentage of each country’s GNI. These figures come from the Development Assistance Committee of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (DAC OECD).

If we look at the World Bank data downloaded from the website, we have a column for each year and the names are quite messy.

This data is wide form.

Unacceptable.

So we will change the data from wide to long data.

Instead of a column for each year, we will have a row for each country-year.

Before doing that, we can clean up the variable names with the janitor package function: clean_names().

sdg %<>% 
  clean_names() 

ALSO, before we pivot the dataset to longer format, we choose the variables we want to keep (i.e. only country, year and ODA value)

sdg %<>% 
  select(country_name, x1990_yr1990:x2015_yr2015) 

Now we are ready to turn the data from wide to long.

We can use the pivot_longer() function from the tidyr package.

Instead of 286 rows and 27 columns, we will ultimately end up with 6968 rows and only 3 columns.

Source: Garrick Aden-Buie’s (@grrrckTidy Animated Verbs

Thank you to Mr. Aden-Buie for your page visualising all the different ways to transform datasets with dplyr. Click the link to check out more.

Back to the pivoting, we want to create a row for each year, 1990, 1991, 1992 …. up to 2015

And we will have a separate cell for each value of the ODA variable for each country-year value.

In the pivot_longer() function we exclude the country names,

We want a new row for each year, so we make a “year” variable with the names_to() argument.

And we create a separate value for each ODA as a percentage of GNI with the values_to() argument.

sdg %>% 
  pivot_longer(!country_name, names_to = "year", 
               values_to = "oda_gni") -> oda

The year values are character strings, not numbers. So we will convert with parse_number(). This parses the first number it finds, dropping any non-numeric characters before the first number and all characters after the first number.

oda %>% 
     mutate(year = parse_number(year)) -> oda 

Next we will move from the year variable to ODA variable. There are many ODA values that are empty. We can see that there are 145 instances of empty character strings.

oda %>% 
  count(oda_gni) %>% 
  arrange(oda_gni)

So we can replace the empty character strings with NA values using the na_if() function. Then we can use the parse_number() function to turn the character into a string.

oda %>%
  mutate(oda_gni = na_if(oda_gni, "")) %>% 
  mutate(oda_gni = parse_number(oda_gni)) -> oda

Now we need to delete the year variables that have no values.

oda %<>% 
  filter(!is.na(year))

Also we need to delete non-countries.

The dataset has lots of values for regions that are not actual countries. If you only want to look at politically sovereign countries, we can filter out countries that do not have a Correlates of War value.

oda %<>%
  mutate(cow = countrycode(oda$country_name, "country.name", 'cown')) %>% 
  filter(!is.na(cow))

We can also make a variable for each decade (1990s, 2000s etc).

oda %>% 
  mutate(decade = substr(year, 1, 3)) %>% 
  mutate(decade = paste0(decade, "0s"))

And download data for countries’ region, continent and govenment regime. To do this we use the democracyData package and download the PACL dataset.

Click here to read more about this package.

pacl <- democracyData::redownload_pacl()

pacl %>% 
  select(cow = pacl_cowcode,
         year,
         region = un_region_name,
         continent = un_continent_name,
         demo_dummy = democracy,
         regime = regime
         ) -> pacl_subset

We use the left_join() function to join both datasets together with Correlates of War code and year variables.

oda %>% 
  left_join(pacl_subset, by = c("cow", "year")) -> oda_pacl

Now if we look at the dataset, we can see that it is much tidier and we can start analysing.

Below we can create a bar chart of the top ten countries that received the most aid as a percentage of their economic income (gross national income)

First we need to get the average oda per country with the group_by() and summarise() functions

oda_pacl %>%
  mutate(oda_gni = ifelse(is.na(oda_gni), 0, oda_gni)) %>%  
  group_by(country_name,region, continent) %>% 
  summarise(avg_oda = mean(oda_gni, na.rm = TRUE)) -> oda_mean

We use the slice() function to only have the top ten countries

oda_mean %>% 
  arrange(desc(avg_oda)) %>%
  ungroup() %>% 
  slice(1:10) -> oda_slice

We add an ISO code for each country for the flags

Click here to read more about the ggimage package

oda_slice %<>% 
  mutate(iso2 = countrycode(country_name, "country.name", "iso2c"))

And some nice hex colours

my_palette <- c( "#44bec7", "#ffc300", "#fa3c4c")

And finally, plot it out with ggplot()

oda_slice %>%
  ggplot(aes(x = reorder(country_name, avg_oda),
             y = avg_oda, fill = continent)) + 
  geom_bar(stat = "identity") + 
  ggimage::geom_flag(aes(image = iso2), size = 0.1)  +
  coord_flip() +
  scale_fill_manual(values = my_palette) + 
  labs(title = "ODA aid as % GNI ",
       subtitle = "Source: OECD DAC via World Bank",
       x = "Donor Country",
       y = "ODA per capita") + bbplot::bbc_style()

Scraping and wrangling UN peacekeeping data with tidyr package in R

Packages we will need:

library(tidyverse)
library(rvest)
library(magrittr)
library(tidyr)
library(countrycode)
library(democracyData)
library(janitor)
library(waffle)

For this blog post, we will look at UN peacekeeping missions and compare across regions.

Despite the criticisms about some operations, the empirical record for UN peacekeeping records has been robust in the academic literature

“In short, peacekeeping intervenes in the most difficult
cases, dramatically increases the chances that peace will
last, and does so by altering the incentives of the peacekept,
by alleviating their fear and mistrust of each other, by
preventing and controlling accidents and misbehavior by
hard-line factions, and by encouraging political inclusion”
(Goldstone, 2008: 178).

The data on the current and previous PKOs (peacekeeping operations) will come from the Wikipedia page. But the variables do not really lend themselves to analysis as they are.

Amy Coney Barrett Snl GIF by Saturday Night Live - Find & Share on GIPHY

Once we have the url, we scrape all the tables on the Wikipedia page in a few lines

pko_members <- read_html("https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_United_Nations_peacekeeping_missions")
pko_tables <- pko_members %>% html_table(header = TRUE, fill = TRUE)

Click here to read more about the rvest package for scraping data from websites.

pko_complete_africa <- pko_tables[[1]]
pko_complete_americas <- pko_tables[[2]]
pko_complete_asia <- pko_tables[[3]]
pko_complete_europe <- pko_tables[[4]]
pko_complete_mena <- pko_tables[[5]]

And then we bind them together! It’s very handy that they all have the same variable names in each table.

rbind(pko_complete_africa, pko_complete_americas, pko_complete_asia, pko_complete_europe, pko_complete_mena) -> pko_complete

Next, we will add a variable to indicate that all the tables of these missions are completed.

pko_complete %<>% 
  mutate(complete = ifelse(!is.na(pko_complete$Location), "Complete", "Current"))

We do the same with the current missions that are ongoing:

pko_current_africa <- pko_tables[[6]]
pko_current_asia <- pko_tables[[7]]
pko_current_europe <- pko_tables[[8]]
pko_current_mena <- pko_tables[[9]]

rbind(pko_current_europe, pko_current_mena, pko_current_asia, pko_current_africa) -> pko_current

pko_current %<>% 
  mutate(complete = ifelse(!is.na(pko_current$Location), "Current", "Complete"))

We then bind the completed and current mission data.frames

rbind(pko_complete, pko_current) -> pko

Then we clean the variable names with the function from the janitor package.

pko_df <-  pko %>% 
  janitor::clean_names()

Next we’ll want to create some new variables.

We can make a new row for each country that is receiving a peacekeeping mission. We can paste all the countries together and then use the separate function from the tidyr package to create new variables.

 pko_df %>%
  group_by(conflict) %>%
  mutate(location = paste(location, collapse = ', ')) %>% 
  separate(location,  into = c("country_1", "country_2", "country_3", "country_4", "country_5"), sep = ", ")  %>% 
  ungroup() %>% 
  distinct(conflict, .keep_all = TRUE) %>% 

Next we can create a new variable that only keeps the acroynm for the operation name. I took these regex codes from the following stack overflow link

pko_df %<>% 
  mutate(acronym = str_extract_all(name_of_operation, "\\([^()]+\\)")) %>% 
  mutate(acronym = substring(acronym, 2, nchar(acronym)-1)) %>% 
  separate(dates_of_operation, c("start_date", "end_date"), "–")

I will fill in the end data for the current missions that are still ongoing in 2022

pko_df %<>% 
  mutate(end_date = ifelse(complete == "Current", 2022, end_date)) 

And next we can calculate the duration for each operation

pko_df %<>% 
  mutate(end_date = as.integer(end_date)) %>% 
  mutate(start_date = as.integer(start_date)) %>% 
  mutate(duration = ifelse(!is.na(end_date), end_date - start_date, 1)) 

I want to compare regions and graph out the different operations around the world.

We can download region data with democracyData package (best package ever!)

Snl Season 47 GIF by Saturday Night Live - Find & Share on GIPHY
pacl <- redownload_pacl()

pacl %>% 
  select(cown = pacl_cowcode,
        un_region_name, un_continent_name) %>% 
  distinct(cown, .keep_all = TRUE) -> pacl_region

We join the datasets together with the inner_join() and add Correlates of War country codes.

pko_df %<>% 
  mutate(cown = countrycode(country_1, "country.name", "cown")) %>%   mutate(cown = ifelse(country_1 == "Western Sahara", 605, 
                       ifelse(country_1 == "Serbia", 345, cown))) %>% 
  inner_join(pacl_region, by = "cown")

Now we can start graphing our duration data:

pko_df %>% 
  ggplot(mapping = aes(x = forcats::fct_reorder(un_region_name, duration), 
                       y = duration, 
                       fill = un_region_name)) +
  geom_boxplot(alpha = 0.4) +
  geom_jitter(aes(color = un_region_name),
              size = 6, alpha = 0.8, width = 0.15) +
  coord_flip() + 
  bbplot::bbc_style() + ggtitle("Duration of Peacekeeping Missions")
Years

We can see that Asian and “Western Asian” – i.e. Middle East – countries have the longest peacekeeping missions in terns of years.

pko_countries %>% 
  filter(un_continent_name == "Asia") %>%
  unite("country_names", country_1:country_5, remove = TRUE,  na.rm = TRUE, sep = ", ") %>% 
  arrange(desc(duration)) %>% 
  knitr::kable("html")
Start End Duration Region Country
1949 2022 73 Southern Asia India, Pakistan
1964 2022 58 Western Asia Cyprus, Northern Cyprus
1974 2022 48 Western Asia Israel, Syria, Lebanon
1978 2022 44 Western Asia Lebanon
1993 2009 16 Western Asia Georgia
1991 2003 12 Western Asia Iraq, Kuwait
1994 2000 6 Central Asia Tajikistan
2006 2012 6 South-Eastern Asia East Timor
1988 1991 3 Southern Asia Iran, Iraq
1988 1990 2 Southern Asia Afghanistan, Pakistan
1965 1966 1 Southern Asia Pakistan, India
1991 1992 1 South-Eastern Asia Cambodia, Cambodia
1999 NA 1 South-Eastern Asia East Timor, Indonesia, East Timor, Indonesia, East Timor
1958 NA 1 Western Asia Lebanon
1963 1964 1 Western Asia North Yemen
2012 NA 1 Western Asia Syria

Next we can compare the decades

pko_countries %<>% 
  mutate(decade = substr(start_date, 1, 3)) %>% 
  mutate(decade = paste0(decade, "0s")) 

And graph it out:

pko_countries %>% 
  ggplot(mapping = aes(x = decade, 
                       y = duration, 
                       fill = decade)) +
  geom_boxplot(alpha = 0.4) +
  geom_jitter(aes(color = decade),
              size = 6, alpha = 0.8, width = 0.15) +
   coord_flip() + 
  geom_curve(aes(x = "1950s", y = 60, xend = "1940s", yend = 72),
  arrow = arrow(length = unit(0.1, "inch")), size = 0.8, color = "black",
   curvature = -0.4) +
  annotate("text", label = "First Mission to Kashmir",
           x = "1950s", y = 49, size = 8, color = "black") +
  geom_curve(aes(x = "1990s", y = 46, xend = "1990s", yend = 32),
             arrow = arrow(length = unit(0.1, "inch")), size = 0.8, color = "black",curvature = 0.3) +
  annotate("text", label = "Most Missions after the Cold War",
           x = "1990s", y = 60, size = 8, color = "black") +

  bbplot::bbc_style() + ggtitle("Duration of Peacekeeping Missions")
Years

Following the end of the Cold War, there were renewed calls for the UN to become the agency for achieving world peace, and the agency’s peacekeeping dramatically increased, authorizing more missions between 1991 and 1994 than in the previous 45 years combined.

We can use a waffle plot to see which decade had the most operation missions. Waffle plots are often seen as more clear than pie charts.

Click here to read more about waffle charts in R

To get the data ready for a waffle chart, we just need to count the number of peacekeeping missions (i.e. the number of rows) in each decade. Then we fill the groups (i.e. decade) and enter the n variable we created as the value.

pko_countries %>% 
  group_by(decade) %>% 
  count() %>%  
  ggplot(aes(fill = decade, values = n)) + 
  waffle::geom_waffle(color = "white", size= 3, n_rows = 8) +
  scale_x_discrete(expand=c(0,0)) +
  scale_y_discrete(expand=c(0,0)) +
  coord_equal() +
  labs(title = "Number of Peacekeeper Missions") + bbplot::bbc_style() 
Cecily Strong Snl GIF by Saturday Night Live - Find & Share on GIPHY

If we want to add more information, we can go to the UN Peacekeeping website and download more data on peacekeeping troops and operations.

We can graph the number of peacekeepers per country

Click here to learn more about adding flags to graphs!

le_palette <- c("#5f0f40", "#9a031e", "#94d2bd", "#e36414", "#0f4c5c")

pkt %>%
  mutate(contributing_country = ifelse(contributing_country == "United Republic of Tanzania", "Tanzania",ifelse(contributing_country == "Côte d’Ivoire", "Cote d'Ivoire", contributing_country))) %>% 
  mutate(iso2 = tolower(countrycode::countrycode(contributing_country, "country.name", "iso2c"))) %>% 
  mutate(cown = countrycode::countrycode(contributing_country, "country.name", "cown")) %>% 
  inner_join(pacl_region, by = "cown") %>% 
  mutate(un_region_name = case_when(grepl("Africa", un_region_name) ~ "Africa",grepl("Eastern Asia", un_region_name) ~ "South-East Asia",
 un_region_name == "Western Africa" ~ "Middle East",TRUE ~ as.character(un_region_name))) %>% 
  filter(total_uniformed_personnel > 700) %>% 
  ggplot(aes(x = reorder(contributing_country, total_uniformed_personnel),
             y = total_uniformed_personnel)) + 
  geom_bar(stat = "identity", width = 0.7, aes(fill = un_region_name), color = "white") +
  coord_flip() +
  ggflags::geom_flag(aes(x = contributing_country, y = -1, country = iso2), size = 8) +
  # geom_text(aes(label= values), position = position_dodge(width = 0.9), hjust = -0.5, size = 5, color = "#000500") + 
  scale_fill_manual(values = le_palette) +
  labs(title = "Total troops serving as peacekeepers",
       subtitle = ("Across countries"),
       caption = "         Source: UN ") +
  xlab("") + 
  ylab("") + bbplot::bbc_style()

We can see that Bangladesh, Nepal and India have the most peacekeeper troops!